Immunomodulation on the ocular surface: A review

Ambroziak, A.M., Szaflik, J., Szaflik, J.P., Ambroziak, M., Witkiewicz, J., Skopiński, P.

Central European Journal of Immunology

41 (2), 2016, 195–208, 10.5114/ceji.2016.60995

The increasing understanding of immune mechanisms changed our perception of the ocular surface, which is now considered a compartment of the common mucosal immune system. It offered the possibility to alter the physiological immune response on the ocular surface and effectively combat inflammation, which impairs stability of the tear film and causes tear hyperosmolarity, causing symptoms of dry eye disease. The paper provides an overview of ocular surface anatomy and physiology, explains the underlying mechanisms of dry eye disease and discusses novel and promising treatment modalities, such as cyclosporine A, biological therapies using autologous serum and various growth factors as well as experimental treatment methods which are currently being investigated.