Crustal structure across the TESZ along POLONAISE'97 seismic profile P2 in NW Poland

Janik T, Yliniemi J, Grad M, Thybo H, Tiira T, POLONAISE P2 Working Group


360(1-4), 2002, 129-152, 10.1016/S0040-1951(02)00353-0

The POLONAISE'97 (POlish Lithospheric ONset—An International Seismic Experiment, 1997) seismic experiment in Poland targeted the deep structure of the Trans-European Suture Zone (TESZ) and the complex series of upper crustal features around the Polish Basin. One of the seismic profiles was the 300-km-long profile P2 in northwestern Poland across the TESZ. Results of 2D modelling show that the crustal thickness varies considerably along the profile: ∼29 km below the Palaeozoic Platform; 35–47 km at the crustal keel at the Teisseyre–Tornquist Zone (TTZ), slightly displaced to the northeast of the geologic inversion zone; and ∼42 km below the Precambrian Craton. In the Polish Basin and further to the south, the depth down to the consolidated basement is 6–14 km, as characterised by a velocity of 5.8–5.9 km/s. The low basement velocities, less than 6.0 km/s, extend to a depth of 16–22 km. In the middle crust, with a thickness of ca. 4–14 km, the velocity changes from 6.2 km/s in the southwestern to 6.8 km/s in the northeastern parts of the profile. The lower crust also differs between the southwestern and northeastern parts of the profile: from 8 km thickness, with a velocity of 6.8–7.0 km/s at a depth of 22 km, to ca.12 km thickness with a velocity of 7.0–7.2 km/s at a depth of 30 km. In the lowermost crust, a body with a velocity of 7.20–7.25 km/s was found above Moho at a depth of 33–45 km in the central part of the profile. Sub-Moho velocities are 8.2–8.3 km/s beneath the Palaeozoic Platform and TTZ, and about 8.1 km/s beneath the Precambrian Platform. Seismic reflectors in the upper mantle were interpreted at ∼45-km depth beneath the Palaeozoic Platform and ∼55-km depth beneath the TTZ.

The Polish Basin is an up to 14-km-thick asymmetric graben feature. The basement beneath the Palaeozoic Platform in the southwest is similar to other areas that were subject to Caledonian deformation (Avalonia) such that the Variscan basement has only been imaged at a shallow depth along the profile. At northeastern end of the profile, the velocity structure is comparable to the crustal structure found in other portions of the East European Craton (EEC). The crustal keel may be related to the geologic inversion processes or to magmatic underplating during the Carboniferous–Permian extension and volcanic activity.