Real-time single-pixel video imaging with Fourier domain regularization

Czajkowski K.M., Pastuszczak A., Kotyński R.

Optics Express

26(16), 2018, 20009-20022, 10.1364/OE.26.020009

We present a closed-form image reconstruction method for single-pixel imaging based on the generalized inverse of the measurement matrix. Its numerical cost scales proportionally with the number of measured samples. Regularization of the inverse problem is obtained by minimizing the norms of the convolution between the reconstructed image and a set of spatial filters. The final reconstruction formula can be expressed in terms of matrix pseudoinverse. At high compression, this approach is an interesting alternative to the methods of compressive sensing based on l1-norm optimization, which are too slow for real-time applications. For instance, we demonstrate experimental single-pixel detection with real-time reconstruction obtained in parallel with measurement at a frame rate of 11 Hz for highly compressive measurements with a resolution of 256 × 256. To this end, we preselect the sampling functions to match the average spectrum obtained with an image database. The sampling functions are selected from the Walsh-Hadamard basis, from the discrete cosine basis, or from a subset of Morlet wavelets convolved with white noise. We show that by incorporating the quadratic criterion into the closed-form reconstruction formula, we can use binary rather than continuous sampling and reach similar reconstruction quality as is obtained by minimizing the total variation. This makes it possible to use cosine- or Morlet-based sampling with digital micromirror devices without advanced binarization methods.