Vinayachandran P.N., Matthews A.J., Kumar K.V., Sanchez-Franks A., Thushara V., George J., Vijith V., Webber B.G.M., Queste B.Y., Roy R., Sarkar A., Baranowski D.B., Bhat G.S., Klingaman N.P., Peatman S.C., Parida C., Heywood K.J., Hall R., King B., Kent E.C., Nayak A.A., Neema C.P., Amol P., Lotliker A., Kankonkar A., Gracias D.G., Vernekar S., D’Souza A.C., Valluvan G., Pargaonkar S.M., Dinesh K., Giddings J., and Joshi M.
The Bay of Bengal (BoB) plays a fundamental role in controlling the weather systems that make up the South Asian summer monsoon system. In particular, the southern BoB has cooler sea surface temperatures (SST) that influence ocean–atmosphere interaction and impact the monsoon. Compared to the southeastern BoB, the southwestern BoB is cooler, more saline, receives much less rain, and is influenced by the summer monsoon current (SMC). To examine the impact of these features on the monsoon, the BoB Boundary Layer Experiment (BoBBLE) was jointly undertaken by India and the United Kingdom during June–July 2016. Physical and biogeochemical observations were made using a conductivity–temperature–depth (CTD) profiler, five ocean gliders, an Oceanscience Underway CTD (uCTD), a vertical microstructure profiler (VMP), two acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs), Argo floats, drifting buoys, meteorological sensors, and upper-air radiosonde balloons. The observations were made along a zonal section at 8°N between 85.3° and 89°E with a 10-day time series at 8°N, 89°E. This paper presents the new observed features of the southern BoB from the BoBBLE field program, supported by satellite data. Key results from the BoBBLE field campaign show the Sri Lanka dome and the SMC in different stages of their seasonal evolution and two freshening events during which salinity decreased in the upper layer, leading to the formation of thick barrier layers. BoBBLE observations were taken during a suppressed phase of the intraseasonal oscillation; they captured in detail the warming of the ocean mixed layer and the preconditioning of the atmosphere to convection.
Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 2018, vol. 75(10), pp. 3365–3379, doi: 10.1175/BAMS-D-16-0230.1